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History of Face Recognition

The subject of face recognition is as old as computer vision, both because of the practical importance of the topic and theoretical interest from cognitive scientists. Despite the fact that other methods of identification (such as fingerprints, or iris scans) can be more accurate, face recognition has always remains a major focus of research because of its non-invasive nature and because it is people's primary method of person identification.

Perhaps the most famous early example of a face recognition system is due to Kohonen [5], who demonstrated that a simple neural net could perform face recognition for aligned and normalized face images. The type of network he employed computed a face description by approximating the eigenvectors of the face image's autocorrelation matrix; these eigenvectors are now known as `eigenfaces.'

Kohonen's system was not a practical success, however, because of the need for precise alignment and normalization. In following years many researchers tried face recognition schemes based on edges, inter-feature distances, and other neural net approaches. While several were successful on small databases of aligned images, none successfully addressed the more realistic problem of large databases where the location and scale of the face is unknown.

Kirby and Sirovich (1989) [6] later introduced an algebraic manipulation which made it easy to directly calculate the eigenfaces, and showed that fewer than 100 were required to accurately code carefully aligned and normalized face images. Turk and Pentland (1991) [7] then demonstrated that the residual error when coding using the eigenfaces could be used both to detect faces in cluttered natural imagery, and to determine the precise location and scale of faces in an image. They then demonstrated that by coupling this method for detecting and localizing faces with the eigenface recognition method, one could achieve reliable, real-time recognition of faces in a minimally constrained environment. This demonstration that simple, real-time pattern recognition techniques could be combined to create a useful system sparked an explosion of interest in the topic of face recognition.

Figure: Face Recognition using Elastic Graph Matching

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Next: Current State of the Up: Person Identification via Face Previous: Person Identification via Face
Tanzeem Choudhury